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Kumana National Park

A bird’s paradise in Sri Lanka, the sanctuary is spread over an area of more than 35000 hectares and is home to many migratory and other bird flocks. The preserve is 391 kilometers southeast of Colombo on Sri Lanka’s southeastern coast. Kumbukkan Oya made the southern boundary of the national park. Kumana is close to Yala National Park.

It was previously known as Yala East National Park but changed its name on 5th September 2006.

The park was enclosed from 1985 to March 2003 because of the attacks on the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam). It has also affected by the 2004 tsunami disaster.

Some 20 lagoons and tanks feed the extensive birdlife of the national park. The lagoons are shallow, with depths of less than 2 meters. 

 One of the most excellent features of the Kumana National Park is the ‘Kumana Villu’ – a 200-hectare natural swamp lake fed by the ‘Kumbukkan Oya’ through a half-mile-long narrow channel. Multiple water birds nest in May and June at this mangrove swamp. 

Kumana Villu is inundation by seawater from time to time. The area’s high ranges from sea level to 90 meters. The mean yearly temperature is 27.30 °C (81.14 °F), and the site receives 1,300 millimeters (51.18 in) of annual rainfall.

The park’s wetland sites have surrounded by dry tract tropical thorn forests. The inland wilds’ flora has dominated by Manilkarahexandra (Sinhalese “Palu”), Hemicyclea Sepieria, Bauhinia Racemosa, Cassia fistula (“Ehela”), Chloroxylon Swietenia (“Burutha”), and Salvadora Persica species. The particular tree of the Kumana Villu is Sonneratia Caseolaris, among Typha angustifolia is the dominant reed. Terminalia arjuna trees dominate the riverine forests along the Kumbukkan Oya. The well-known aquatic plants of the swamp are colorful Ludwigia spp., Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea Pubescens, Aponogeton spp., and Neptunia Oleracea.

Kumana Bird sanctuary, declared in 1938, is included within the Kumana National Park. It is one of the essential bird nesting and breeding grounds in Sri Lanka. Two hundred fiftyfive species of birds has recorded in the national park. Rare species such as the Eurasian spoonbill and great thick-knee are breeding inhabitants. Waders from Scolopacidae and Charadriidae are among the area’s visitors and waterfowl. Pintail Snipes immigrate here, flying 9,000 kilometers (5,600 mi) to 11,000 kilometers (6,800 mi) from Siberia. Asian openbill, glossy ibis, purple heron, great egret, Indian pond heron, black-crowned night heron, intermediate egret, little egret, spot-billed pelican, Indian cormorant, little cormorant, common moorhen, watercock, purple swamphen, white-breasted waterhen, pheasant-tailed jacana, black-winged stilt, lesser whistling duck and little grebe are the bird species migrate here in large flocks. Among the rare birds that immigrate to the swap are:

The yellow-footed green pigeon

Greater racket-tailed drongo, 

Malabar trogon, Red-faced malkoha, 

Sirkeer malkoha.

Pacific golden plover, greater sand plover, lesser sand plover, grey plover, ruddy turnstone, little ringed plover, wood sandpiper, marsh sandpiper, common redshank, common sandpiper, curlew sandpiper, little stint, common snipe, and pintail snipe are the common wading birds of the park.

Tilapia and mullet are the commonly fished diversity on the site. 

Mugger crocodile

Indian flap-shelled turtle and Indian black turtle are well-known reptiles inhabiting the park. Mammals such as golden jackals, wild boars, Sri Lankan elephants, European otters, and fishing cats also visit the swamp to support. The number of elephants in the Kumana has appraised at 30–40.

The Kumana site is part of an ancient civilization dating back to the 3rd century BC. It lies on the traditional annual foot pilgrimage route to the Hindu temple at Kataragama. Both Tamil and Sinhalese people receive a part in this pilgrimage.

The number of birds looked at in the national park has fallen recently. Environmentalists and wildlife lovers have expressed dismay over the proposed road from Kirinda to Panama through the park’s coastline.

If you are on a bird-watching tour in Sri Lanka, Kumana National Park is an ‘absolute must.


Useful Information

  • If you stay quiet during the safari, you can see the animals better because if you are noisy, the animals will hide from you.

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Kumana National Park

Authentic wildlife safari experience in a less visited national park in Sri Lanka
Located in the southeast corner of Sri Lanka, the 18,149 hectares Kumana National Park is a well-known eco-tourism attraction and bird sanctuary where many birds breed and roost.


Hotels Around Kumana National Park